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Archive for the ‘PG Entrance’ Category

Cardiac action potential

Posted by jobinmartin on September 13, 2010


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Posted by jobinmartin on September 9, 2010

Primary chancre of syphilis on the hand.

Image via Wikipedia

Primary syphilis

Sexual contact

10-90 days incubation(21)

Chancre(a firm, painless skin ulceration localized at the point of initial exposure to the spirochete, often on the penis, vagina or rectum)

Heal spontaneosly

Secondary Syphilis

1-6 months after initial infection

Most infective

Condyloma latum

Tertiary syphilis

1-10 years after initial infection

Gummas,granulomas(Body cannot clear the infection)

neuropathic joint

Cardiovascular syphilis(syphilitic aortitis, aortic aneurysm, aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva and aortic regurgitation),tree bark appearance,cor bovinum(cow’s heart)


General paralysis of the insane

Argyll Robertson pupil( bilateral small pupils that constrict when the patient focuses on a near object (they “accommodate”), but do not constrict when exposed to bright light (they do not “react” to light). They were formerly known as “Prostitute’s Pupils” because of their association with tertiary syphilis and because of the convenient mnemonic that, like a prostitute, they “accommodate but do not react)

Tabes dorsalis(Tabes dorsalis is caused by demyelination.The degenerating nerves are in the dorsal columns (posterior columns) of the spinal cord (the portion closest to the back of the body) and carry information that help maintain a person’s sense of position (proprioception), vibration, and discriminative touch)

De mussets sign(a rhythmic nodding or bobbing of the head in synchrony with the beating of the heart, in general as a result of aortic insufficiency caused by aortic regurgitation)


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Structures piercing diaphragm

Posted by jobinmartin on September 9, 2010

T8-Venacaval opening

T10-Oesophageal opening

T12-Aortic opening

10-Oesophageal opening 0=O, the other two opening lie 2 levels above and below.

Venacava is ascending—–Inf venacava, so it pierces the diaphragam at a higher level. Oesophagus and Aorta are descending so they pierce at a lower level

Other structure passing

T8-IVC,Right phrenic n

T10-esophagus,left gastric art

T12-ATA —–Aorta,Thoracic duct,Azygous vein

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Gut Divisions,bloddsupply and nerve supply

Posted by jobinmartin on September 9, 2010

FOREGUT-Stomach,(liver,GB,Pancreas),Ist part of duodenum

MIDGUT-Duo,jejunum,ileum,caecum,asc colon,tr colon till jn of  med 2/3rd and lat 1/3rd

HINDGUT-Tr colon1/3rd,des colon,sigmoid col,rectum, anal canal.

Blood supply


Foregut-Celiac trunk

Midgut-Superior mesenteric

Hindgut-Inferior mesenteric


Foregut-individual veins

Midgut-superior mesenteric

Hindgut-Inf mesenteric

Nerve supply






S234———Pelvic splanchnic(parasympathetic)

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Types of collagen

Posted by jobinmartin on September 7, 2010

Everyone knows there are 4 “important” types of collagen,of the total 16 types.

Type I————   Bone,fibrocartilage,ligaments,tendon,dentin

Type II————–Vitreous,Hyaline cartilage,Elastic Cartilage

Type III———————-Healing tissue,muscle,Blood vessels

Type IV———————Basement membrane(2 dimentional)

So it seems that the type of collagen proceeds from I,II,III and IV while we move out from within a limb.

Bone,Cartilage,Tissue,basement membrane.Skin is formed by both I and III.

three amino acids: glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline are important in collagen triple helix.These amino acids make up the characteristic repeating motif Gly-Pro-X, where X can be any amino acid

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Direct and Indirect

Posted by jobinmartin on September 3, 2010

Coombs Test


Defined by their relationship to the inferior epigastric vessels.

Direct inguinal hernias occur medial to the inferior epigastric vessels when abdominal contents herniate through the external inguinal ring. Indirect inguinal hernias occur when abdominal contents protrude through the deep inguinal ring, lateral to the inferior epigastric vessels; this may be caused by failure of embryonic closure of the processus vaginalis.

Hasselbachs Triangle

This can be remembered by the mnemonic RIP (as Direct inguinal hernias rip directly through the abdominal wall.)

Amyands Hernia-Vermiform Appendix

Littres Hernia-Meckels Diverticulum




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HLA system

Posted by jobinmartin on August 21, 2010

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Areas in brain

Posted by jobinmartin on August 10, 2010

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Human Herpes Virus

Posted by jobinmartin on August 3, 2010

Human Herpes Virus 1-8



HHVIII———–Herpes Zoster Virus

HHV IV———–Ebstein Barr Virus


HHV VI VII—–Febrile illness in children

HHV VIII——-Karposi Sarcoma

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Posted by jobinmartin on August 3, 2010

Visualize the canal as a cylinder, stretching from the deep inguinal ring to the superficial inguinal ring.[1]

To help define the boundaries, the canal is often further approximated as a box with six sides. Not including the two rings, the remaining four sides are usually called the “anterior wall”, “posterior wall”, “roof”, and “floor”. These consist of the following:

mnemonic “MALT”, starting at the top and going counterclockwise:

  • M – muscles
  • A – aponeuroses (The A in MALT coincides with the position of the wall – Anterior. Hence, it is impossible to mix up whether the direction of the mnemonic is clockwise or anticlockwise)
  • L – ligaments
  • T – transversalis/tendon


  • in males : the spermatic cord and its coverings + the ilioinguinal nerve.
  • in females : the round ligament of the uterus + the ilioinguinal nerve.

The classic description of the contents of spermatic cord in the male are: 3 arteries: artery to vas, testicular artery, cremasteric artery 3 fascial layers: external spermatic,internal spermatic,cremastic 3 other vessels: pampiniform plexus, vas deferens, lymphatics 1 nerve: genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve (L1/2)

The ilioinguinal nerve passes through the superficial ring to descend into the scrotum, but does not formally run through the canal.

Gonads (ovaries or testes) descend from their starting point on the posterior abdominal wall (para-aortically) and near the kidneys down the abdomen and through the inguinal canal to reach the scrotum. The testis then descends through the abdominal wall into the scrotum, behind the processus vaginalis (which later obliterates). Thus lymphatic spread from a testicular tumour is to the para-aortic nodes first, and not the inguinal nodes.


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