Mindboggling- Mind blogger?

A different way to think.All I learned about mind,memory,intelligence and self improvement.

HLA system

Posted by jobinmartin on August 21, 2010


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Areas in brain

Posted by jobinmartin on August 10, 2010

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Human Herpes Virus

Posted by jobinmartin on August 3, 2010

Human Herpes Virus 1-8



HHVIII———–Herpes Zoster Virus

HHV IV———–Ebstein Barr Virus


HHV VI VII—–Febrile illness in children

HHV VIII——-Karposi Sarcoma

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Posted by jobinmartin on August 3, 2010

Visualize the canal as a cylinder, stretching from the deep inguinal ring to the superficial inguinal ring.[1]

To help define the boundaries, the canal is often further approximated as a box with six sides. Not including the two rings, the remaining four sides are usually called the “anterior wall”, “posterior wall”, “roof”, and “floor”. These consist of the following:

mnemonic “MALT”, starting at the top and going counterclockwise:

  • M – muscles
  • A – aponeuroses (The A in MALT coincides with the position of the wall – Anterior. Hence, it is impossible to mix up whether the direction of the mnemonic is clockwise or anticlockwise)
  • L – ligaments
  • T – transversalis/tendon


  • in males : the spermatic cord and its coverings + the ilioinguinal nerve.
  • in females : the round ligament of the uterus + the ilioinguinal nerve.

The classic description of the contents of spermatic cord in the male are: 3 arteries: artery to vas, testicular artery, cremasteric artery 3 fascial layers: external spermatic,internal spermatic,cremastic 3 other vessels: pampiniform plexus, vas deferens, lymphatics 1 nerve: genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve (L1/2)

The ilioinguinal nerve passes through the superficial ring to descend into the scrotum, but does not formally run through the canal.

Gonads (ovaries or testes) descend from their starting point on the posterior abdominal wall (para-aortically) and near the kidneys down the abdomen and through the inguinal canal to reach the scrotum. The testis then descends through the abdominal wall into the scrotum, behind the processus vaginalis (which later obliterates). Thus lymphatic spread from a testicular tumour is to the para-aortic nodes first, and not the inguinal nodes.


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Posted by jobinmartin on August 2, 2010

In the developing fetus, the ductus arteriosus (DA) is the vascular connection between the pulmonary artery and the aortic arch that allows most of the blood from the right ventricle to bypass the fetus’ fluid-filled compressed lungs. During fetal development, this shunt protects the right ventricle from pumping against the high resistance in the lungs, which can lead to right ventricular failure if the DA closes in-utero.
When the newborn takes its first breath, the lungs open and pulmonary vascular resistance decreases. After birth, the lungs release bradykinin to constrict the smooth muscle  wall of the DA and reduce bloodflow through the DA as it narrows and completely closes, usually within the first few weeks of life. In most newborns with a patent ductus arteriosus the blood flow is reversed from that of in utero flow, i.e. the blood flow is from the higher pressure aorta to the now lower pressure pulmonary arteries.
A patent ductus arteriosus allows a portion of the oxygenated blood from the left heart to flow back to the lungs by flowing from the aorta (which has higher pressure) to the pulmonary artery. If this shunt is substantial, the neonate becomes short of breath: the additional fluid returning to the lungs increases lung pressure to the point that the neonate has greater difficulty inflating the lungs. This uses more calories than normal and often interferes with feeding in infancy. This condition, as a constellation of findings, is called congestive heart failure. In some cases, such as in transposition of the great vessels (the pulmonary artery and the aorta), a PDA may need to remain open. In this cardiovascular condition, the PDA is the only way that oxygenated blood can mix with deoxygenated blood. In these cases, prostaglandins are used to keep the patent ductus arteriosus open.Without treatments, the disease may progress from left-to-right (noncyanotic heart) shunt to right-to-left shunt (cyanotic heart) called Eisenmenger syndrome.


Tetralogy of Fallot results in low oxygenation of blood due to the mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the left ventricle via the VSD and preferential flow of the mixed blood from both ventricles through the aorta because of the obstruction to flow through the pulmonary valve. This is known as a right-to-left shunt. The primary symptom is low blood oxygen saturation with or without cyanosis from birth or developing in the first year of life. If the baby is not cyanotic then it is sometimes referred to as a “pink tet”.Other symptoms include a heart murmur which may range from almost imperceptible to very loud, difficulty in feeding, failure to gain weight, retarded growth and physical development, dyspnea on exertion, clubbing of the fingers and toes, and polycythemia.

Children with tetralogy of Fallot may develop “tet spells”. The precise mechanism of these episodes is in doubt, but presumably results from a transient increase in resistance to blood flow to the lungs with increased preferential flow of desaturated blood to the body. Tet spells are characterized by a sudden, marked increase in cyanosis followed by syncope, and may result in hypoxic brain injury and death. Older children will often squat during a tet spell, which increases systemic vascular resistance and allows for a temporary reversal of the shunt.Oxygen is effective in treating spells because it is a potent pulmonary vasodilator and systemic vasoconstrictor. This allows more blood flow to the lungs.


There are also simple procedures such as squatting and the knee chest position which increases aortic wave reflection, increasing pressure on the left side of the heart, decreasing the right to left shunt thus decreasing the amount of deoxygenated blood entering the systemic circulation.

The abnormal “coeur-en-sabot” (boot-like) appearance of a heart with tetralogy of Fallot is easily visible via chest x-ray

The Blalock-Taussig shunt (also referred to as a Blalock-Thomas-Taussig shunt) is a surgical procedure to give palliation to cyanotic heart defects which are common causes of blue baby syndrome. In modern surgery, this procedure is temporarily used to direct blood flow to the lungs and relieve cyanosis while the infant is waiting for corrective or palliative surgery.

One branch of the subclavian artery or carotid artery is separated and connected with the pulmonary artery. The lung receives more blood with low oxygenation from the body. The first area of application was tetralogy of Fallot.


Total Anomalous Pulmonary venous connection

Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) consists of an abnormality of blood flow in which all 4 pulmonary veins drain into systemic veins or the right atrium with or without pulmonary venous obstruction. Systemic and pulmonary venous blood mix in the right atrium. An atrial defect or foramen ovale (part of the complex) is important in left ventricular output both in fetal and in newborn circulation.

Eisenmenger Syndrome

Eisenmenger’s syndrome (or Eisenmenger’s reaction) is defined as the process in which a left-to-right shunt caused by a ventricular septal defect in the heart causes increased flow through the pulmonary vasculature, causing pulmonary hypertension, which in turn, causes increased pressures in the right side of the heart and reversal of the shunt into a right-to-left shunt. Eisenmenger’s syndrome specifically refers to the combination of systemic-to-pulmonary communication, pulmonary vascular disease and cyanosis.

The left side of the heart supplies blood to the whole body, and as a result has higher pressures than the right side, which supplies only deoxygenated blood to the lungs. If a large anatomic defect exists between the sides of the heart, blood will flow from the left side to the right side. This results in high blood flow and pressure travelling through the lungs. The increased pressure causes damage to delicate capillaries, which then are replaced with scar tissue. Scar tissue does not contribute to oxygen transfer, therefore decreasing the useful volume of the pulmonary vasculature. The scar tissue also provides less flexibility than normal lung tissue, causing further increases in blood pressure, and the heart must pump harder to continue supplying the lungs, leading to damage of more capillaries.

The reduction in oxygen transfer reduces oxygen saturation in the blood, leading to increased production of red blood cells in an attempt to bring the oxygen saturation up. The excess of red blood cells is called polycythemia. Desperate for enough circulating oxygen, the body begins to dump immature red cells into the blood stream. Immature red cells are not as efficient at carrying oxygen as mature red cells, and they are less flexible, less able to easily squeeze through tiny capillaries in the lungs, and so contribute to death of pulmonary capillary beds. The increase in red blood cells also causes hyperviscosity syndrome.

A person with Eisenmenger’s Syndrome is paradoxically subject to the possibility of both uncontrolled bleeding due to damaged capillaries and high pressure, and random clots due to hyperviscosity and stasis of blood.

Eventually, due to increased resistance, pulmonary pressures may increase sufficiently to cause a reversal of blood flow, so blood begins to travel from the right side of the heart to the left side, and the body is supplied with deoxygenated blood, leading to cyanosis and resultant organ damage.

Cor Pulmonale

Cor pulmonale (Latin cor, heart + New Latin pulmōnāle, of the lungs) or pulmonary heart disease is enlargement of the right ventricle of the heart as a response to increased resistance or high blood pressure in the lungs.

Chronic cor pulmonale usually results in right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), whereas acute cor pulmonale usually results in dilation.

Hypertrophy is an adaptive response to a long-term increase in pressure. Individual muscle cells grow larger and change to drive the increased contractile force required to move the blood against greater resistance.

Dilation is a stretching of the ventricle in response to acute increased pressure.

To be classified as cor pulmonale, the cause must originate in the pulmonary circulation system.

Nutmeg liver may result…

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Machiavellianism and Political Philosophy

Posted by jobinmartin on August 1, 2010

I heard the word Machiavelli while watching the film Find Me guilty, lead role of Jackie Dinorcio played by Vin Diesel. The word Machiavelli was used in the film, to potray the dirty tactics used by the mafia members in America during the period. When I searched for the word Machiavelli in wikipedia, it turned out to be a lot more interesting.

Machiavelli has his own ideas about power, how to attain power and how to maintain it. Though many moderates may find Machiavelli’s principles a bit crude, the tactics were apt for gaining power during his era.His surname yielded the modern political word Machiavellianism—the use of cunning and deceitful tactics in politics.Though the word Machiavellianism may not be used in our day today lives, we come across several examples in the newspapers. Indian political leaders though they may have never heard of Machiavelli are using his tactics to hold on to power.

In a letter to Francesco Vettori, he described his exile:

“When evening comes, I return home [from work and from the local tavern] and go to my study. On the threshold, I strip naked, taking off my muddy, sweaty work day clothes, and put on the robes of court and palace, and, in this graver dress, I enter the courts of the ancients, and am welcomed by them, and there I taste the food that alone is mine, and for which I was born. And there I make bold to speak to them and ask the motives of their actions, and they, in their humanity, reply to me. And for the space of four hours I forget the world, remember no vexation, fear poverty no more, tremble no more at death; I pass indeed into their world”.

Machiavelli studied the way people lived and aimed to inform leaders how they should rule and even how they themselves should live. To an extent he admits that the old tradition was true – men are obliged to live virtuously as according to Aristotles Virtue Ethics principle. However, he denies that living virtuously necessarily leads to happiness. Machiavelli viewed misery as one of the vices that enables a prince to rule Machiavelli states boldly in The Prince, The answer is, of course, that it would be best to be both loved and feared. But since the two rarely come together, anyone compelled to choose will find greater security in being feared than in being loved. In much of Machiavelli’s work, it seems that the ruler must adopt unsavory policies for the sake of the continuance of his regime.

Our leaders who make us feel miserable, have some of the traits of Machiavelii in them, they make us feel powerless, insecure just to continue their reign. Time has come for people to wake up and join hands, to save our world from modern Machiavelli’s.

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How events Happen in our lives-Part II

Posted by jobinmartin on July 23, 2010

I have thought this over and over many times.How does incidents occur in our lives? Are they just accidental, or are they brought upon us by ourselves?

For instance, take the life of Johnny,when Johnny was a kid Johnny had this habit of urinating on his bed while in sleep(Nocturnal enuresis). Every time he wanted to stop his habit, all the time he woke up with the same thing occuring.Night after night he would wake up in the middle of night drenched in his own urine .He had to change his clothings and the bed sheets before going to sleep again.Not only Johnny his parents too were very sad about his plight.Parents tried everything they could do to help Johnny, they would feed johnny early, limit water intake.Every night his parents would wake him up at 12 in the night and took him to the toilet and drain him of the urine hoping to keep him dry.Then also Johnny would collect enough urine to wet his bed by the morning.Johnny was 10years Old by this time.

Atlast Johnny’s parents came to understand one fact, Johnny should understand that he has the power to control his mind. They gave him a small lecture on how he can control his urge by belief in himself. He wouldn’t understand at first, but his parents gave him enough confidence by reciting Bible verses . He gained self confidence and said to himself “I will never wet this bed again,I can control myself”.Slowly he began to regain his self, the thought of bed wetting went away from his mind, he began concentrating on other things in his life.

It was a miracle, after a few days (1 week) Johnny was dry.When he understood the power of his mind, little Johnny was a strong kid.He understood how to control himself,how to gain control over his life. This experience would guide Johnny through the rest of his life.The most important of all, trust in oneself than anything else.

NB:How events happen in lives is a series on how, we can transform our lives by just listening to ourselves and having belief in our self.

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The House Of Aminoacids

Posted by jobinmartin on July 22, 2010

A house of Aminoacids, the thought itself may seem immature, but there are many things on the surface of earth which exists. This House is believed to exist in the outskirts of Amsterdam.

The purpose of this house may seem silly, but people do many things just for fun. This house was built just to learn more about amino acids and their classification.I became so interested and went through this house on a visit there, so that a topic which has been so confusing through out my life could be learnt so easily.

The house of Amino Acids is built based on the memory principles, Peg system of memory and the loci system of memory.Doors and rooms are designed so as to make a lasting memory of Amino acids and their classification.

Usually tourist places have an entry fee, just for the maintenance, but the people who managed this House was so reluctant to accept any entry fee.I was welcomed with a warm shakehand, and they explained what to expect there and gave a classification of essential and non essential amino acids.

Just to mention


Semi essential:Arginine and histidine

Simple Aa:glycine,alanine

Only optically inactive amino acid:Glycine

There was a Big Gate welcoming visitors, it was painted Silver and THE HOUSE OF AMINOACIDS was inscribed on it with RED.

The front door was beautifully furnished, the name Isoleucine was printed on with, I wonder why some ice cubes were drawn on the front door. ICE=ISO?, there was a big hallway in front of me, rooms on either side with doors.The amino acids in the first room were Non polar and they were 8 in number 6 were essential and 2 were non essential.

I first decided to take a count of number of rooms, total 9 rooms, and 10 doors including the front door, I understood that the doors were meant to memorize the amino acids and rooms were meant to memorize the different properties of amino acids.There were 3 rooms on the left and 4 rooms on the right.

2.second door was meant for Leucine, on entering this room I got the smell of burnt charcoal( Keto aminoacid)

3. The third door was an extension of the first room, and Threonine was written on it, threonine had some friends inside too,these friends were drinking water( polar).

4. The fourth door was meant for Lysine, it felt just like a bedroom and since bed room is meant for a basic need(sleep ) I thought some other basic aminoacids will be present too.I was right I saw Arginine and Histidine sleeping on the bed!

5. Fifth door Methionine. I also remembered that methionine and cysteine were sulfur containing amino acids.

6.Phenylalanine. Also that Phenylalanine and tyrosine are Aromatic Amino acids

7.Tryptophan.Histidine and tryptophan are heterocyclic

8.Valine.Along with Valine,leucine and isoleucine are branched Amino acids

As you can see doors 1 to 8 were meant for essential amino acids.Now you can place whatever in these rooms to fit in the other classifications ie polar and non polar, Simple, branched,Ketogenic glucogenic etc etc.

Any Help In Learning These Little Molecules Proves Truly Valuable

9 and 10 were on the other side of the building for Arginine and Histidine Both semiessential amino acids

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Mind Map-Upperlimb muscle innervation

Posted by jobinmartin on July 21, 2010

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How events happen in our lives-Part I

Posted by jobinmartin on July 20, 2010

After a long interval, when I write this post, I was just wondering how thoughts can change the outcome of every act we are performing. The story goes like this:

After finishing the MBBS course, qualified as a doctor, the first thing I wanted to do was run Amok! I really enjoyed life for a few months after my House surgeoncy.When I went to Kasargod from my native place(Kottayam) to do rural service, I never had an intention to prepare for PG entrance, my intention was just to complete the rural service and to get the hell out.

Meanwhile all my friends were attending PG coaching classes, I really enjoyed the landscape of the district where I was posted. Four months went by uneventfully, classes had begun, I didn’t even care to join.I was on regular contact with my friends, who were always talking about PG entrance and blah blah. Soon I too was interested, I didn’t know where the interest came from.Maybe I thought about future, but it began influencing me. I joined entrance classes at kottayam all of a sudden.An urge from within asked me to go that way, I obeyed it.

Thoughts influence our life, what we hear, what we see, what we say, everything has something to do with our future.Fortune tellers have a good time, because they follow this rule without knowledge.When a fortune teller predicts your future, what he does is sow some seeds of thought into your mind. The thoughts germinate and grow into big trees and bear fruits. If the seed sown is negative, the fruit will be poisonous, if the seed is a good one, the fruit will be delicious.

Take this another instance. I was planning to return from my workplace which is about 400km from my native place.My brother Justin booked the ticket for me, I got a ticket on the side upper of S4 compartment. Since I am about 6 feet, I knew I couldn’t sleep, with the unavailability of space interfering with positioning of my legs. When I called home, I told mother “Mom I am going to ask the person next to me to trade berths with me”. I forgot this incidence but the real surprise came when I boarded the train! When I came in put my luggage on the berth, the lady next to me asked , “can you please take my berth and give y
our berth to me”.I was baffled, I didn’t know how this happened. But now I know how!

Thoughts influence our life a lot, what we think of now materializes tomorrow.Thoughts shape up our world, they bring into our life whatever we want. I may be talking like all those preachers out there, but this fact is true. I have experienced this in my life many times, but didn’t know it was due to my thought on a past date.

Now what I am going to do is shape my future with my thoughts, by nurturing good thoughts, by weeding out negative thoughts.

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